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Salman Bal (2001), "International Free Trade Agreements and Human Rights : Reinterpreting Article XX of the GATT", Minnesota Journal of Global Trade, vol. 10 (hiver)

2 mars 2001

This article argues that labor rights are integrally related to international trade, and as a result the two policies should be linked. Part I examines the historical and contemporary connections between international agreement provisions and human rights. Part II looks at the scope of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), as incorporated in the World Trade Organization Agreement (WTO)—specifically Article XX. Part III discusses the procedures of Article XX, using the Article’s introductory phrase and paragraphs (a), (b), and (d) of Article XX, which constitute the most controversial sections concerning the linkage of human rights and GATT provisions. The section further discusses the application of the paragraphs and the possible inclusion of fundamental labor rights within the Article’s scope. Finally, this article argues that through careful application of these paragraphs, the GATT can be used to protect human rights and expand labor protection.

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